>榫欑彔鐩存挱
榫欑彔鐩存挱

濯掍綋锛氬畻搴嗗悗鎵归┈浜戔滆儭璇村叓閬撯濇湁娌℃湁閬撶悊锛

銆銆鍘熸爣棰橈細瀹楀簡鍚庢壒椹簯鏈夋病鏈夐亾鐞嗭紵

銆銆涓句竴鍙嶄笁

銆銆浜嬪疄涓婏紝鎶鏈缁忔祹鐨勬敼鍙樼浉瀵规潵璇存洿鍔犳樉鑰屾槗瑙侊紝姣斿锛屼簰鑱旂綉銆佺Щ鍔ㄤ簰鑱旂綉閮芥敼鍙樹簡缁忔祹锛屾敼鍙樹簡鐢熸椿銆備絾涓庢鐩稿鐨勶紝鍒跺害瀵圭粡娴庣殑鏀瑰彉锛屽嵈寰寰涓嶅鏄撹瀵熻銆

銆銆鏈杩戯紝椹簯鎻愬嚭浜嗕簲鏂扮殑璇存硶锛屽嵆鏂伴浂鍞佹柊鍒堕犮佹柊鎶鏈佹柊閲戣瀺鍜屾柊璧勬簮銆傚湪鏈杩戠殑涓娆$數瑙嗚妭鐩笂锛屽畻搴嗗悗琛ㄧず锛氭垜璁や负闄や簡鏂版妧鏈互澶栵紝鍏朵粬閮芥槸鑳¤鍏亾銆傛柊鍒堕狅紝鏈韩灏变笉鏄疄浣撶粡娴庡埗閫犱粈涔堜笢瑗裤傚鏋滄槸鏂版妧鏈紝鎴戝掕涓哄瀹炰綋缁忔祹纭疄鏄拷姹傛柊鐨勬妧鏈紝鏉ユ彁楂樻垜浠繖涓埗閫犱笟锛屼粠涓綆绔蛋鍚戦珮绔埗閫犱笟銆

銆銆瀹楀簡鍚庣殑杩欎竴鐣瘽锛屼娇寰楁湰鏉ヤ互鈥滃叡鍚屾帰璁ㄤ腑鍥藉埗閫犱笟瀵掑啲鐨勬繁灞傚師鍥犫濈殑鑺傜洰锛屾煇绉嶇▼搴︿笂鍙樹负瀵逛互浜掕仈缃戜负鍩虹鐨勬柊缁忔祹鐨勬壒璇勩傛牸鍔涚數鍣ㄨ懀浜嬮暱钁f槑鐝犻『渚夸篃琛ㄨ揪浜嗚嚜宸辩殑鐪嬫硶锛屽ス璁や负90鍚庡枩娆㈠紑缃戝簵鏄滃浗瀹堕殣鎮b濄

銆銆瀹楀簡鍚庢槸1945骞寸敓浜猴紝浠栫殑涓栫晫瑙傚舰鎴愪簬涓婁笘绾簲鍏崄骞翠唬锛屽湪閭d釜骞翠唬鐨勬暀鑲蹭腑锛屽彧鏈夊伐鍘傚伐浜虹殑鍔冲姩鎵嶈璁ゅ彲鍒涢犱簡鐪熸鐨勪环鍊硷紝鍝曟槸鍥芥湁閾惰鐨勫憳宸ワ紝鍥芥湁鍟嗗簵鐨勫敭璐у憳锛岄兘琚涓轰緷闄勪簬鍟嗕笟璧勬湰鐨勫墺鍓娿傛墍浠ワ紝瀹楀簡鍚庤涓猴紝鍙湁鐩存帴鍙備笌鐢熶骇鐨勬妧鏈紝鎵嶆槸缁忔祹鍙戝睍鐨勯噸瑕佸洜绱狅紝杩欏苟涓嶅鎬

銆銆钁f槑鐝犳瘮瀹楀簡鍚庡皬涓浜涳紝鐢熶簬1954骞达紝涓栫晫瑙傚悓鏍峰舰鎴愪簬鐏孩宀佹湀銆傚湪杩欎釜鏃舵湡锛屼腑鍥界ぞ浼氫竴鐩村浜庝竴绉嶉珮搴︾殑缁勭粐鍖栫姸鎬侊紝缁勭粐璧锋潵杩涜鐢熶骇锛岀敋鑷崇敓娲汇傞殢鐫鏀归潻寮鏀撅紝缁忔祹鏉冨埄鐨勬斁鏉惧甫缁欎簡浜烘洿澶х殑鑷敱搴︼紝寰堝浜鸿劚绂诲崟浣嶏紝鎴栬呯敓浜ч槦鐨勬潫缂氥備絾绀句細瑙傚康涓婁粛鐒跺彲浠ュ彂鐜拌繃鍘荤殑閬楄抗锛屾病鏈夊崟浣嶇殑浜猴紝浠嶈瑙嗕负娓告墜濂介棽銆

銆銆鎵浠ワ紝瀹楀簡鍚庝笌钁f槑鐝犵殑瑙傚康瀹為檯涓婃湁鐫娣卞埢鐨勫巻鍙插嵃杩癸紝鏄巻鍙茬殑涓绉嶅洖鍝嶃備絾鏈夎叮鐨勬槸锛屽疄闄呬笂锛屼簰鑱旂綉瀵煎笀浠苟涓嶆槸杩欐牱璁や负鐨勩傛瘮濡傦紝椹簯鎻愬埌鏂伴噾铻嶃傛墍璋撴柊閲戣瀺锛岄【鍚嶆濅箟锛屽氨鏄笉鍚屼簬褰撲笅鐨勪竴绉嶆柊鐨勯噾铻嶅埗搴︼紝鏂扮殑铻嶈祫鏂瑰紡銆傚叾瀹烇紝濡備粖鐨勮偂甯傚湪200骞村墠涔熸槸鏂伴噾铻嶃

銆銆瀹為檯涓婏紝涓浗鐨勫彂灞曞彶涔熻瘉鏄庝簡杩欎竴鐐广

銆銆鎶鏈缁忔祹鐨勬敼鍙樼浉瀵规潵璇存槸鏇村姞鏄捐屾槗瑙佺殑锛屾瘮濡傦紝浜掕仈缃戙佺Щ鍔ㄤ簰鑱旂綉甯︽潵浜嗘柊鐨勯噾铻嶅舰寮忥紝杩欎簺閮芥敼鍙樹簡缁忔祹锛屾敼鍙樹簡鐢熸椿銆備絾涓庢鐩稿鐨勶紝鍒跺害瀵圭粡娴庣殑鏀瑰彉锛屽嵈寰寰涓嶅鏄撹瀵熻銆

銆銆寰堝鏃跺欙紝鐗瑰埆鏄湪涓浗锛屾煇绉嶇▼搴︿笂锛屾柊鍒跺害鏇村姞閲嶈锛岀敋鑷虫瘮鎶鏈繕閲嶈銆

銆銆姣斿锛屾妧鏈竴鐩村瓨鍦紝浣嗘槸缂轰箯鍒跺害鐨勬敮鎸佷笌淇濇姢锛屽悇绉嶆柊鎶鏈竴鐩翠笉鑳借繘鍏ヤ腑鍥藉浗闂紝鐢氳嚦楂橀熷叕璺紝閮芥浘琚涓鸿祫鏈富涔夌殑涓滆タ銆傜洿鍒版敼闈╁紑鏀撅紝瑙e喅浜嗗埗搴﹂棶棰橈紝鏂版妧鏈墠涓鎷ヨ岃繘锛岃屽畻搴嗗悗杩欐牱鐨勪紒涓氬锛屼篃鏄緷闈犲埗搴︼紝鎵嶈兘鐢熷瓨銆佸彂灞曘

銆銆瀹為檯涓婏紝鍦ㄥ綋涓嬩富娴佺殑缁忔祹瀛﹀彂灞曚腑锛屽埗搴﹀缁忔祹鍙戝睍鐨勪綔鐢ㄨ秺鏉ヨ秺鍙楀埌閲嶈銆傚埗搴︾粡娴庡锛圛nstitutional Economics锛夋槸鎶婂埗搴︿綔涓虹爺绌跺璞$殑涓闂ㄧ粡娴庡鍒嗘敮銆傚畠鐮旂┒鍒跺害瀵逛簬缁忔祹琛屼负鍜岀粡娴庡彂灞曠殑褰卞搷锛屼互鍙婄粡娴庡彂灞曞浣曞奖鍝嶅埗搴︾殑婕斿彉銆

銆銆鍒跺害缁忔祹瀛︾殑鐮旂┒濮嬩簬绉戞柉锛圧onald Coase锛夈婁紒涓氫箣鎬ц川銆嬶紝濞佸粔濮嗘.锛圤liver Williamson锛夈佸痉濮嗗鑼(Harold Demsetz)绛変汉瀵逛簬杩欓棬鏂板叴瀛︾浣滃嚭浜嗛噸澶х殑璐$尞銆傝繎30骞达紝鏂板埗搴︾粡娴庡鏄摤鍕冨彂灞曠殑缁忔祹瀛︾殑涓涓垎鏀紝琛嶇敓鍑轰骇鏉冪粡娴庡銆佷氦鏄撹垂鐢ㄧ粡娴庡銆佹柊缁忔祹鍙蹭互鍙婂绾︾粡娴庡绛夊垎鏀傜畝鍗曚粠瀛楅潰鐞嗚В锛岃繖浜涘澶氬皯灏戜笌椹簯鎵璇寸殑鈥滀簲鏂扳濅腑鐨勫悗鈥滃洓鏂扳濇湁鐩镐技涔嬪銆

business.sohu.com false 鏂颁含鎶 report 1595 鍘熸爣棰橈細瀹楀簡鍚庢壒椹簯鏈夋病鏈夐亾鐞嗭紵涓句竴鍙嶄笁浜嬪疄涓婏紝鎶鏈缁忔祹鐨勬敼鍙樼浉瀵规潵璇存洿鍔犳樉鑰屾槗瑙侊紝姣斿锛屼簰鑱旂綉銆佺Щ鍔ㄤ簰鑱旂綉閮芥敼鍙樹簡缁忔祹锛屾敼鍙樹簡鐢熸椿銆備絾涓庢鐩稿鐨勶紝鍒跺害瀵圭粡娴